- 1 Эдельвейс стойкий горный цветок
- 2 Definitions of runway accidents
- 3 Runway safety
- 4 Runway lighting
- 5 Подробное описание растения
- 6 Runway length
- 7 Sections of a runway
- 8 Declared distances
- 9 Учет требований российского рынка
- 10 Runway markings
- 11 Purpose
- 12 History
Эдельвейс стойкий горный цветок
Это милое растение встречается на возвышенностях и склонах Альп, Карпат, Гималаев и даже на Дальнем Востоке. Оно успешно развивается среди разрушенных скал и обломков породы. Цветок можно найти в узких ущельях, куда не задувают ветра и хранятся остатки снега и дождя. Там, где растут эдельвейсы всегда достаточно света, ведь они трепетно тянутся к солнцу своими нежными лепестками.
На первый взгляд цветок может показаться не очень привлекательным. Но познакомившись с ним поближе, многие оценили его по достоинству и стали выращивать в своих палисадниках. Свое название эдельвейс получил из-за внешнего сходства с тыльной стороной львиной лапы. Именно так звучит его название на латыни – «Leontopodium». Действительно, когда бутоны распускаются и покрываются обилием нежных ворсинок, они напоминают кошачью лапу. Изображенный на фото цветок эдельвейс в дикой природе – правдивое доказательство этого сходства.
Definitions of runway accidents
Several terms fall under the topic of runway safety, including incursion, excursion, and confusion. Terms such as runway event or runway accident are used for such incidents.
involves an aircraft, and a second aircraft, vehicle, or person. It is defined by and the U.S. as «Any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take off of aircraft.»
Runway excursion is an incident involving only a single aircraft, where it makes an inappropriate exit from the runway. This can happen because of pilot error, poor weather, or a fault with the aircraft.
«Overrun» is a type of excursion where the aircraft is unable to stop before the end of the runway. An example is in , in 2010. Further examples can be found in the overruns category.
Runway excursion is the most frequent type of landing accident, slightly ahead of runway incursion. For runway accidents recorded between 1995 and 2007, 96% were of the ‘excursion’ type.
Runway confusion is when a single aircraft uses the wrong runway, or a , for takeoff or landing. Examples of runway confusion incidents include , and .
Types of runway safety incidents include:
- Runway excursion — an incident involving only a single aircraft, where it makes an inappropriate exit from the runway (e.g. ).
- Runway incursion — an incident involving incorrect presence of a vehicle, person or another aircraft on the runway (e.g. Aeroflot Flight 3352, Linate Airport disaster (Scandinavian Airlines Flight 686)).
- Runway confusion — an aircraft makes use of the wrong runway for landing or takeoff (e.g. Singapore Airlines Flight 006, Western Airlines Flight 2605).
- Runway undershoot — an aircraft that lands short of the runway (e.g. British Airways Flight 38, Asiana Airlines Flight 214).
A runway landing light from 1945
The first runway lighting appeared in 1930 at Cleveland Municipal Airport (now known as Cleveland Hopkins International Airport) in Cleveland, Ohio. A line of lights on an airfield or elsewhere to guide aircraft in taking off or coming in to land or an illuminated runway is sometimes also known as a flare path.
Night runway view from A320 cockpit
Ground light at Bremen Airport
Runway lighting is used at airports that allow night landings. Seen from the air, runway lights form an outline of the runway. A runway may have some or all of the following:
- Runway end identifier lights (REIL) – unidirectional (facing approach direction) or omnidirectional pair of synchronized flashing lights installed at the runway threshold, one on each side.
- Runway end lights – a pair of four lights on each side of the runway on precision instrument runways, these lights extend along the full width of the runway. These lights show green when viewed by approaching aircraft and red when seen from the runway.
- Runway edge lights – white elevated lights that run the length of the runway on either side. On precision instrument runways, the edge-lighting becomes amber in the last 2,000 ft (610 m) of the runway, or last third of the runway, whichever is less. Taxiways are differentiated by being bordered by blue lights, or by having green centre lights, depending on the width of the taxiway, and the complexity of the taxi pattern.
- Runway centerline lighting system (RCLS) – lights embedded into the surface of the runway at 50 ft (15 m) intervals along the runway centerline on some precision instrument runways. White except the last 900 m (3,000 ft): alternate white and red for next 600 m (1,969 ft) and red for last 300 m (984 ft).
- Touchdown zone lights (TDZL) – rows of white light bars (with three in each row) at 30 or 60 m (98 or 197 ft) intervals on either side of the centerline for 900 m (3,000 ft).
- Taxiway centerline lead-off lights – installed along lead-off markings, alternate green and yellow lights embedded into the runway pavement. It starts with green light at about the runway centerline to the position of first centerline light beyond the Hold-Short markings on the taxiway.
- Taxiway centerline lead-on lights – installed the same way as taxiway centerline lead-off Lights, but directing airplane traffic in the opposite direction.
- Land and hold short lights – a row of white pulsating lights installed across the runway to indicate hold short position on some runways that are facilitating land and hold short operations (LAHSO).
- Approach lighting system (ALS) – a lighting system installed on the approach end of an airport runway and consists of a series of lightbars, strobe lights, or a combination of the two that extends outward from the runway end.
According to Transport Canada’s regulations, the runway-edge lighting must be visible for at least 2 mi (3 km). Additionally, a new system of advisory lighting, runway status lights, is currently being tested in the United States.
The edge lights must be arranged such that:
- the minimum distance between lines is 75 ft (23 m), and maximum is 200 ft (61 m);
- the maximum distance between lights within each line is 200 ft (61 m);
- the minimum length of parallel lines is 1,400 ft (427 m);
- the minimum number of lights in the line is 8.
Approach lighting system at Berlin Tegel Airport
Control of lighting system
Typically the lights are controlled by a control tower, a flight service station or another designated authority. Some airports/airfields (particularly uncontrolled ones) are equipped with pilot-controlled lighting, so that pilots can temporarily turn on the lights when the relevant authority is not available. This avoids the need for automatic systems or staff to turn the lights on at night or in other low visibility situations. This also avoids the cost of having the lighting system on for extended periods. Smaller airports may not have lighted runways or runway markings. Particularly at private airfields for light planes, there may be nothing more than a windsock beside a landing strip.
Подробное описание растения
Многие садоводы хорошо знают, как выглядит цветок эдельвейс в естественной среде. Поэтому не бояться его выращивать на своих дачных участках. Присмотревшись к растению, можно заметить, что оно состоит из таких элементов:
- Одиночные прямостоячие побеги высотой примерно 25 см.
- Прикорневая розетка из ланцетных листьев, лежащих на почве.
- Нежные бутоны белого либо желтого цвета, обильно опушенные шелковым ворсом.
Цветет эдельвейс в середине лета, когда уходят в небытие последние отголоски низких температур. Он украшает клумбу около 20 дней, как и горные склоны Альп в Швейцарии. Его соцветия состоят из нескольких оригинальных корзинок в виде скрученных бутончиков белого или желтого цвета. Вокруг них расположены линейные листочки, покрытые обилием нежных ворсинок. Благодаря такому сочетанию образуется вычурная звездочка, присущая эдельвейсу.
Лепестки бутонов также обильно опушены, поэтому создается впечатление, что они вылиты из воска. Эти миниатюрные комочки будто выглядывают из-под снега, лежащего на звездчатых листовых пластинах. Такая красота никого не оставляет равнодушным, поэтому многим по душе этот горный цветок любви.
A runway of at least 6,000 ft (1,829 m) in length is usually adequate for aircraft weights below approximately 200,000 lb (90,718 kg). Larger aircraft including widebodies will usually require at least 8,000 ft (2,438 m) at sea level and somewhat more at higher altitude airports. International widebody flights, which carry substantial amounts of fuel and are therefore heavier, may also have landing requirements of 10,000 ft (3,048 m) or more and takeoff requirements of 13,000 ft (3,962 m). The Boeing 747 is considered to have the longest takeoff distance of the more common aircraft types and has set the standard for runway lengths of larger international airports.
At sea level, 10,000 ft (3,048 m) can be considered an adequate length to land virtually any aircraft. For example, at O’Hare International Airport, when landing simultaneously on 4L/22R and 10/28 or parallel 9R/27L, it is routine for arrivals from East Asia, which would normally be vectored for 4L/22R (7,500 ft (2,286 m)) or 9R/27L (7,967 ft (2,428 m)) to request 28R (13,000 ft (3,962 m)). It is always accommodated, although occasionally with a delay. Another example is that the Luleå Airport in Sweden was extended to 10,990 ft (3,350 m) to allow any fully loaded freight aircraft to take off.
An aircraft taking off at a higher altitude must do so at reduced weight due to decreased density of air at higher altitudes, which reduces engine power. An aircraft must also take off at a reduced weight in hotter or more humid conditions (see density altitude). Most commercial aircraft carry manufacturer’s tables showing the adjustments required for a given temperature.
A parachute is used to slow down craft, in this case the Space Shuttle
The world’s longest paved runway, at Qamdo Bamda Airport in Tibet (China), has a total length of 5,500 m (18,045 ft).
Sections of a runway
There exist standards for runway markings.
- The runway thresholds are markings across the runway that denote the beginning and end of the designated space for landing and takeoff under non-emergency conditions.
- The runway safety area is the cleared, smoothed and graded area around the paved runway. It is kept free from any obstacles that might impede flight or ground roll of aircraft.
- The runway is the surface from threshold to threshold, which typically features threshold markings, numbers, and centerlines, but not overrun areas at both ends.
- Blast pads, also known as overrun areas or stopways, are often constructed just before the start of a runway where jet blast produced by large planes during the takeoff roll could otherwise erode the ground and eventually damage the runway. Overrun areas are also constructed at the end of runways as emergency space to slowly stop planes that overrun the runway on a landing gone wrong, or to slowly stop a plane on a rejected takeoff or a takeoff gone wrong. Blast pads are often not as strong as the main paved surface of the runway and are marked with yellow chevrons. Planes are not allowed to taxi, take off or land on blast pads, except in an emergency.
Displaced thresholds may be used for taxiing, takeoff, and landing rollout, but not for touchdown. A displaced threshold often exists because obstacles just before the runway, runway strength, or noise restrictions may make the beginning section of runway unsuitable for landings. It is marked with white paint arrows that lead up to the beginning of the landing portion of the runway.
Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m (804 ft) long and 8 m (26 ft) wide in smaller general aviation airports, to 5,500 m (18,045 ft) long and 80 m (262 ft) wide at large international airports built to accommodate the largest jets, to the huge 11,917 m × 274 m (39,098 ft × 899 ft) lake bed runway 17/35 at Edwards Air Force Base in California – developed as a landing site for the Space Shuttle.
Takeoff and landing distances available are given using one of the following terms:
- Takeoff Run Available – The length of runway declared available and suitable for the ground run of an airplane taking off.
- Takeoff Distance Available – The length of the takeoff run available plus the length of the , if clearway is provided.
- (The clearway length allowed must lie within the aerodrome or airport boundary. According to the Federal Aviation Regulations and Joint Aviation Requirements (JAR) TODA is the lesser of TORA plus clearway or 1.5 times TORA).
- Accelerate-Stop Distance Available – The length of the takeoff run available plus the length of the stopway, if stopway is provided.
- Landing Distance Available – The length of runway that is declared available and suitable for the ground run of an airplane landing.
- Emergency Distance Available – LDA (or TORA) plus a stopway.
Учет требований российского рынка
- В российских гостиницах широко распространена практика поселения по местам, которая чаще всего используется совместно с классическим поселением в номер. Это предъявляет к системе особые требования по контролю загрузки гостиницы, поиску свободных номеров и/или мест, учету телефонных переговоров из номеров продаваемых местами. Учет номерного фонда и его загрузки должен вестись в койко-сутках.
- Во многих отечественных гостиницах используется система обязательной полной предоплаты проживания и жесткого контроля должников (зачатую контроль осуществляется на почасовой основе).
- В РФ существуют жестко регламентированные процедуры денежных расчетов с клиентами. При реализации интерфейса с контрольно-кассовыми машинами к системе предъявляются дополнительные требования.
- Российская система бухгалтерского учета существенно отличается от зарубежной. Например, для корректного предоставления данных в бухгалтерию система должна учитывать не только факты оплаты и предоставления услуг, но и отслеживать связь между ними, т.е. отвечать на вопрос, когда и каким способом каждая из услуг была оплачена.
- Отечественная система налогообложения также имеет ряд уникальных особенностей. В качестве примера можно привести налог с продаж, при начислении которого необходимо учитывать не только наименования товаров и/или услуг, но и способ их оплаты.
- Гостиничная система, распространяемая на российском рынке, должна содержать набор обязательных отчетов, предназначенных для предоставления в налоговые органы, ОВИР, Госкомстат. Приказом Минфина РФ № 121 от 13 декабря 1993 года утверждены формы первичного учета для гостиниц Российской Федерации.
There are runway markings and signs on most large runways. Larger runways have a distance remaining sign (black box with white numbers). This sign uses a single number to indicate the remaining distance of the runway in thousands of feet. For example, a 7 will indicate 7,000 ft (2,134 m) remaining. The runway threshold is marked by a line of green lights.
There are three types of runways:
- Visual runways are used at small airstrips and are usually just a strip of grass, gravel, ice, asphalt, or concrete. Although there are usually no markings on a visual runway, they may have threshold markings, designators, and centerlines. Additionally, they do not provide an instrument-based landing procedure; pilots must be able to see the runway to use it. Also, radio communication may not be available and pilots must be self-reliant.
- Non-precision instrument runways are often used at small- to medium-size airports. These runways, depending on the surface, may be marked with threshold markings, designators, centerlines, and sometimes a 1,000 ft (305 m) mark (known as an aiming point, sometimes installed at 1,500 ft (457 m)). They provide horizontal position guidance to planes on instrument approach via Non-directional beacon, VHF omnidirectional range, Global Positioning System, etc.
- Precision instrument runways, which are found at medium- and large-size airports, consist of a blast pad/stopway (optional, for airports handling jets), threshold, designator, centerline, aiming point, and 500 ft (152 m), 1,000 ft (305 m)/1,500 ft (457 m), 2,000 ft (610 m), 2,500 ft (762 m), and 3,000 ft (914 m) touchdown zone marks. Precision runways provide both horizontal and vertical guidance for instrument approaches.
- In Australia, Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom, as well as some other countries or territories (Hong Kong and Macau) all 3-stripe and 2-stripe touchdown zones for precision runways are replaced with one-stripe touchdown zones.
- In some South American countries like Colombia, Ecuador and Peru one 3-stripe is added and a 2-stripe is replaced with the aiming point.
- Some European countries replace the aiming point with a 3-stripe touchdown zone.
- Runways in Norway have yellow markings instead of the usual white ones. This also occurs in some airports in Japan, Sweden, and Finland. The yellow markings are used to ensure better contrast against snow.
- Runways may have different types on each end. To cut costs, many airports do not install precision guidance equipment on both ends. Runways with one precision end and any other type of end can install the full set of touchdown zones, even if some are past the midpoint. Runways with precision markings on both ends omit touchdown zones within 900 ft (274 m) of the midpoint, to avoid ambiguity over the end with which the zone is associated.
In 2004, Kate and Sawyer were captured by the Others and forced to remove large rocks and debris from the field as hard labor. («The Glass Ballerina») («Every Man for Himself») («I Do»)
Juliet previously claimed she did not know the purpose of the runway, but offered one (probably tongue-in-cheek) possibility: («Through the Looking Glass, Part 1»)
According to the Official Lost Podcast of March 19, 2009, Jacob ordered the runway to be built. It seems highly probable that Jacob was expecting the arrival of Flight 316.
|Overhead shot of the runway taken from the «deleted scenes» on the Season 3 DVD|
Sawyer and Kate were abruptly taken from their cages by a group of Others, under the leadership of Danny and Tom. They were assigned different tasks by Danny, who appeared to be the site’s supervisor. Kate was forced to break apart rocks while Sawyer wheeled them away. There appeared to be a number of other people performing similar jobs. («The Glass Ballerina»)
Danny also employed a very strict system of rules and punishments at the runway; he used a taser, previously employed by Juliet, to help keep Sawyer and Kate quiet and obedient. Juliet appeared to hold equal, if not greater, authority than Danny, as freely she offered Sawyer a drink from her canteen without any objection from Danny. («The Glass Ballerina»)
Alexandra Rousseau sneaked into the work site in order to ask Kate about Karl. («The Glass Ballerina»)
Alex sneaked into the runway site a second time, attempting to free Kate and Sawyer. She inadvertently set off an alarm and was quickly captured by Danny. Before being taken away, she managed to tell Kate, «Don’t believe a word they say. They’ll kill your boyfriend just like they did mine.» («I Do»)
Later that day, Kate was brought to Jack in an attempt to convince him to perform a surgery on Ben. During their meeting, Jack asked her what they were doing at the work site. Kate responded that she did not know, «But it’s something big». («I Do»)
After a deal was made that allowed Sawyer and Kate to escape, the Others evacuated Hydra Island and ceased work at the runway.
Emergency landing of Ajira Flight 316 (2007)
|An enhanced image of Ajira 316 beside the runway.|
|The runway spotted on approach («Namaste»)|
Ajira Airways Flight 316 used the runway to land after the co-pilot spotted the strip. («The Life and Death of Jeremy Bentham») («Namaste») It proved not to be long enough to accommodate the landing of Ajira Airways Flight 316 at such a high landing speed, and the plane veered slightly off the strip into the jungle near the end of the strip. The runway seems considerably more complete than it was in 2004, suggesting the Others have been working on it in the interim.
Later Sawyer visited the runway when The Man in Black sent him to Hydra Island. («Recon»)
The runway was finally used by Frank to take off from in Ajira Airways Flight 316. The runway was shown cracking as the island is being destroyed. («The End»)
- Jack Shephard — Went to escape on Ajira 316, but left after finding out about the C4.
- Kate Austen — Was forced to build it. Went to escape on Ajira 316, but left after finding out about the C4; but returned and escaped.
- James Ford — Was forced to build it. Went to escape on Ajira 316, but left after finding out about the C4; but returned and escaped.
- Hugo Reyes — Went to escape on Ajira 316, but left after finding out about the C4.
- Sayid Jarrah — Went to escape on Ajira 316, but left after finding out about the C4.
- Jin Kwon — Went to escape on Ajira 316, but left after finding out about the C4.
- Sun Kwon — Crash landed there. Went to escape on Ajira 316, but left after finding out about the C4.
- Claire Littleton — Went to escape on Ajira 316, but left after finding out about the C4; but returned and escaped.
- Ben Linus — Presumably helped build it. Crash landed there.
- Juliet Burke — Helped build it.
- The Man in Black — Went there to collect C4 from the Ajira plane.
- Miles Straume — Went to escape on Ajira 316.
- Richard Alpert — Went to escape on Ajira 316.
- Frank Lapidus — Crash landed there. Went to escape on Ajira 316.
- Alex Rousseau — Went to help Sawyer and Kate escape and find Karl.
- Charles Widmore — Set up a camp near the runway and most likely planted the C4.
- Danny Pickett — Helped build it.